Goodbye from Cafe Luwak

December 31, 2010 by  
Filed under Breaking News, News

cafe-luwak

Right before Thanksgiving Forrest and I sat down and discussed what to do with the café, and with tears in our eyes, we decided it was finally time to close our doors. It was an extremely hard decision to make. When we looked at the numbers our sales were up about 25% over last year. Our new Taco Bar and Soup Bar were doing really well and the breakfast menu was finally taking off. So with everything going well, why would we close? Well the final straw ended up being internal theft. From the time our last manager left in August to the end of November, employees had stolen over twenty thousand dollars in cash and inventory. It isn’t unusual for us to get really tight as the end of ice cream season hits, but with this much theft, there was no way we could get out of the hole we were in without closing and selling the assets to pay off our debts. It was an incredibly sad decision to make. My goal was always to turn this business over to Forrest and let him run it. He truly loved the café and we put our hearts and souls into. All it took was a couple of greedy employees with no conscience to ruin our dream and destroy six years of hard work.

There is no doubt that the main thing we will miss about the café is our customers. We really have had the best customers a business could have. In all our years there, the one thing I have noticed is how few irrational customers we have encountered. Having someone get upset and angry about anything at the café is such a rare occurrence, that it really is a novelty when it happens.  Our regulars have supported us through thick and thin, and Forrest and I have made so many friends through the café. Even when a customer would get bad service, I would usually get an email that would explaining the problem and making suggestions. I never got any that said they wouldn’t come back. It was always people trying to help and give constructive comments. I can’t imagine a community anywhere like the one we have in Ypsilanti. Every year we have local people putting in efforts to get people to shop local and help the independent businesses. With community support like that, it makes running a business so much more satisfying. Forrest and I are going to miss sitting in the dining room having conversations with customers and friends. The café has been such a great place to hang out. We really want to thank all of our customers and friends for their support over the years. You have made our live so rich.

For almost six years Forrest and I ran this café, and we have had a lot of good employees, and our fair share of ones that weren’t. We have never shown a profit, and after the sale we will have lost over a quarter million dollars. Our first four years were almost impossible because we bought equipment from the Operations Manager of Washtenaw Dairy that was supposed to be installed in the summer of 2006 that he never installed. Instead after three years of hearing promise after promise to install the equipment, I ended up having to pay for the installation again through other sources. This killed us financially and made it impossible to make the changes we needed to our business. When we finally got all of the equipment installed in September of 2009, the day we announced our new menu and hung a fancy banner on the front awning, the Thompson Block burned and traffic into Depot Town was blocked off until late in the spring. When our lease was up in February 2010, we almost threw in the towel, but everyone in the neighborhood begged us to stay, so we decided we would give it one more year. It seemed like everything that could go wrong already had, so we were determined to make this our year.

This summer we changed our format. We switched to table service adding servers and cooks to our staff. This change allowed us to cut our labor costs and improve customer service all at the same time. By the time the fall came, our lunch business had increased significantly. Then we added our taco bar and soup bar which both have done well. Our weekend breakfast buffet has always been a hit, and when Forrest took over as the cook, it improved even more. If you had asked me in August how things were going, I would have told you were are on the right track and this is definitely going to be our year, finally.

In August we lost our manager because she moved out of state, and for the next three months we tried to find a replacement, but we couldn’t find anyone we could trust. With me working another job in Detroit and Forrest going back to high school, the employees were left to manage themselves on the busiest shift during the week. We tried making people team leaders, but none of them took on the responsibility. Soon after, we started seeing shortages in the registers on a daily bases. Then inventory started disappearing out the back door. At one point we had almost $500 in coffee disappear, along with cases of other food items. We had three slabs of corned beef stolen after they were cooked and left cooling in the walk-in. When the day shift came in the next day, we were out of corned beef to slice. Then there was all the waste that we started going through. Everyday people would burn trays of cookies. Some cooks would put turkey or roast beef in the oven just to leave at the end of their shift without telling anyone, and I would come in from Detroit to close and find almost of hundred dollars worth of meat smoldering in the oven.

Throughout our years in business, we have always had week staff members, and we have had thefts before, but they were usually twenty dollars here and twenty dollars there, not hundreds of dollars a day. And when we did have a bad apple, we had enough good staff that would point it out and we could get them out pretty quickly. Over the years I have had some really amazing employees, and there are a number of them that I think about and miss on a daily basis. Our original staff from our first year in business was incredible, and this core group stayed with us for several years until finally they had all graduated and moved away. We still had generations of employees after the first group that were great. When we had a solid core, they looked out for us and made sure other employees didn’t take advantage of us because they loved the business and wanted it to succeed. We all had fun working at the café and when it was busy, we were happy because it meant we were doing things right. Forrest and I both have a soft spot in our hearts for a large number of our previous staff and will remember them fondly. When we had a solid staff combined with great customers, there was no place I would rather be than at the café.

Running this business was never about the money for me. In the end that is was killed us, but that was just because it was so much so fast that was stolen. We have always lost money and as long as I kept my job in Detroit, we were able to keep the doors open. Forrest and I have pretty much lived at the café all these years. We were a part of the community and got to know so many people in town. It has always been so nice to chat with regular customers or neighboring business owners and local politicians. This was more than a business, it was a community meeting place. Forrest grew up here. Just walk through the dining room and you will see the growth marks on the wall from when Forrest was 10 all the way to 16 years old. People in town have called Forrest “Mr. Mayor” for years because he is always around and involved in everything going on in Depot Town and even Downtown. Going back to being just normal residents is going to be quite an adjustment for both of us. I think  Forrest is going to have a much harder time adjusting to the change than I will.

Owning the café has definitely been a learning experience as well. I have always worked in corporate settings with knowledge workers. Having a staff of laborers is totally different. There is no doubt that our failure is due to the fact that I cannot manage employees at this level. To be an effective manager in the service industry really means that you have to be a micromanager this is contradictory to the way you manage projects in a technical environment. I am not the type to continually hound employees to get to work or speed things up. I have always wanted employees who were smart enough to do that on their own. That is what I was used to in my background. Forrest is much better at dealing with people than I am. In all the years that I have had employees, I have never had one that could compare to Forrest. I am not sure what he is going to do now, but I know he will do something positive with his life. He has a work ethic that doesn’t exist anymore. He takes pride in his work and always gives 100% when needed. When he took over cooking the breakfast buffet, he gave up getting paid as a waiter. There was no money to pay him out of the business and all my paycheck from Detroit was going to try to cover bills. Forrest showed up at the café every weekend at 5:30am both Saturday and Sunday and made sure the buffet not only got out on time, but looked perfect. His quiches were better than any cook we have ever had before or since. He did all this until we closed without any pay even knowing that we were going to close, he still gave it his all and always took pride in his work. In all the years that we owned the café, Forrest worked more hours with less complaints than did any of the other employees. He would get there at 5:30 in the morning on a Saturday to start the buffet and still be there at 10:00 at night to help close the register, and he did it because he really loved the place. It breaks my heart to see him lose his dream because of a few lowlife employees.

As I sit here writing this goodbye letter, I keep thinking what could we have done differently. Obviously we made mistakes. We knew there were problems with the staff, but we really didn’t have the time to keep hiring, training, firing over and over until we got a solid core again. It costs a lot of money to train new employees and it also has a negative effect on customer service when you are trying to train new people how to do things the right way. We could waste time focusing on the mistakes we made, and I have done a lot of that. No matter what at the end of the day, the failure of the business is my fault. Everything is a result of choices I made either in hiring and firing, trusting certain people over others, not training people enough, etc. I can take the blame for the mistakes because I can also hold my head high and say we never cut corners on quality. I have never ever taken advantage of a customer or cheated anyone in any way. I have treated all my employees fairly, and I have done my best to make working for me as positive an experience as possible. I donated to local charities and events every time they came to the door. When other businesses were hurting, I worked on ideas to bring people to town. I headed events like the “Stuff Your Stocking”, “Depot Town Chili Challenge & Chili Day Bike Ride”, and  “The St. Pawdy’s Day Parade” to name a few. If someone didn’t like their meal there was never an argument about it. We would remake it and give them a scoop of ice cream or cookies to make up for our error. I always insisted that the customer be treated the way I wanted to be treated. The food we served was always home cooked. We never used pre-made salads or soups. There were very few items in the store that were served directly. Meaning if you saw a can of something, it was part of a recipe, never the final product. In all the years we were in business, we had very few complaints about the quality of our food, the biggest complaint was that our service was slow, and we finally fixed a lot of that by adding servers. So in the end, I may be a lousy businessman, but I ran a really good business.

This letter really is meant as an explanation of why we closed and a remembrance of what we had. When Forrest and I look back on the years of our life with the café, the past three months will fade and we will be left with a lot of positive memories. There is no doubt that this will be the hardest I have ever worked and probably will never put in this many hours into anything else again. I can’t say whether that will be true for Forrest. At this point he still loves this business and wants to continue in food service. His goal is to go to school for Hotel and Restaurant Management, so he may be doing this for a long time. I definitely loved working with him. I can’t imagine what our life would have been like if we hadn’t been working together. We had great times at the café. Our busiest coffee day every years was Memorial Day. Every Memorial Day we would take over the coffee station because none of the employees could keep up with us making espressos. During the Chili Challenge, Forrest and I would literally be running circles around employees serving chili from the kitchen making jokes at each other as we ran by. No one could ever keep up with either of us scooping ice cream during the Heritage Festival or the Thursday night Cruise Nights. Forrest has always been the face of the business, and I have always been Forrest’s dad. We were always a team and even in the toughest times we worked together to keep the place running. Whenever there was maintenance that had to be done on a Holiday, Forrest was there with me. One Easter the two of us worked from 9am Easter morning straight through till 11am on the following Monday putting a new floor in the kitchen. Last New Year’s we spent the day building a wall around the grill line so we could add a hand sink. I have always loved working with my son and I with treasure the opportunity I have had. Our customers have watched Forrest grow up and me grow older, and we have loved being here.

There is no doubt that we have worked a ton of hours at the café, but it hasn’t always been work. We have played a lot in town too. Forrest got into cycling as a result of being a part of the community. He loved riding with Bike Ypsi and made a lot of really good friends through the group. In the summer time it wasn’t uncommon to see the two of us riding our long boards in the back alley during the slow periods. We even got to ride them down Cross St. a couple of times after the Heritage Festival ended and the streets were still closed for cleaning. Many of our customers got to know Forrest at the Corner Brewery. When he was younger we would go there after we closed to wind down, but Forrest enjoyed helping out by picking up glasses and doing dishes. Often on Saturday nights you would see him picking up glasses and rolling through the place on his healies. When the owners of the brewery decided not to allow children after 9:00 pm, the employees specifically asked if that included Forrest, and he was immediately exempted from the rules. It funny to watch Forrest go to the brewery any time they have a new door person and they will stop him at the door, and he will just say, but I am Forrest, then a nod from the bartender gets him in every time. You might think that owning a restaurant, we wouldn’t ever go out to eat, but I can tell you after eating sandwiches for years, we are happy to go out to other places. When we go out, we spend most of our time at other local restaurants, and I am sure that will continue after the close. We love going out to eat together, so you will still see us around town.

So what’s next for Forrest? Well he will be working on getting through high school. I have suggested that the new owners give him a part time job, but I am not sure if that will happen or not. Either way I am sure someone in town will give him a job. I am hoping that we both can spend more time doing cycling events with Bike Ypsi and getting involved in other community projects around town. Next summer we will probably do a lot of summer activities to make up for the past few years. Of course he has also mentioned that maybe we could try opening a skate shop in town. I told him to put together a business plan and we would see what we could come up with.

As for me, I plan to keep working as an Internet Architect in Detroit. My contract there limits me to 32 hours a week, so I think I will take some time enjoying three day weekends and eight hour days for a while. In the past 6 years I have had a total of 18 days off, and this year was the first time I actually had two days in a row one weekend in September, so I think I have earned a break. I have plenty of projects to work on around the house. While we owned the café, we pretty much only came home to sleep, so there has been a lot of neglect and a number of things that need fixing. Eventually I will probably start looking at getting into another business. Since I was 18 I have always been self employed, so being an entrepreneur is kind of in my blood. One of the things that I found while serving on the DDA is that there are a lot of web design companies around that focus on design, but very few that can do custom technical solutions. I might look for some partners to put together a tech company. That is something that I do have the skill set for and with the right balance of partners could probably build a successful IT firm. For now that is on the back burner. I am just going to take some time to relax and enjoy life for a bit. I might even take a real vacation for the first time in six years.

When we decided to sell the business, we really wanted the place to stay something like what it is now. Depot Town really needs a business like ours and I would hate to think of it being turned into something else. The location has been and Ice Cream store of some type for as long as I can remember, so I really wanted to find someone who would be willing to keep it that way. Fortunately I was able to find a couple, Mark and Danielle, who were looking for a place just like mine to buy. Danielle has been in the restaurant industry for over 18 years and she ran a Deli in Detroit for 8 years. Mark actually worked for me right at the end which is how we got together on a deal. Danielle is really interested in the ice cream part of the business and Mark likes the coffee side, so I think a lot things will remain the same. Mark is also vegan, so they will continue having a vegetarian / vegan friendly menu, and they both are concerned with buying locally and using environmentally sustainable products which falls inline with the principles we held in our café. They are probably going to scale back initially why they get their feet wet, and learn the business. I hope our customers will take the time to get to know Mark and Danielle and welcome them to the area. I really believe they have what it takes to take what we started and make it a profitable long lasting business in Depot Town. I am very happy that we were able to come to an agreement so the business doesn’t got vacant. As part of our agreement, they have agreed to honor all the gift certificates that were sold or donated by us.

Closing the café like this is definitely not what we wanted or hoped for. This was the last option we wanted to take, and making this decision really hurt. We were able to sell the assets to the new owners, and it looks like we are going to be able to walk away not owing very much. Still it is hard to think of all the time and money we put into this business just to sell what we built to cover the debts. To go from being optimistic about the year to out of business in just over three months is not something I thought was possible. We will miss being in Depot Town and miss seeing everyone at the café on a daily basis. Thank you to everyone who supported us for the past six years. It really was a great run.

Jim Karnopp – Owner
Cafe Luwak
42 E. Cross St.
Ypsilanti, MI 48198
www.cafeluwak.com

The Trials of a City Directory-Writer in 1883

December 30, 2010 by  
Filed under Columnists

Depot Town-area grocer George Neat's ad touted a variety of sugars and canned goods.

Depot Town-area grocer George Neat's ad touted a variety of sugars and canned goods.

In the days before online people-finding search engines or even the yellow pages, yearly city directories offered information on business and residential addresses. For many years the Detroit-based firm of Polk’s compiled directories for Ypsilanti.

In 1883, however, a different company compiled the city directory—Coldwater-based Wendell Directory Company.

Unlike any of the Polk guides, the Wendell directory was prefaced by a poem about Ypsilanti that offers an outsider’s view of the city the company investigated.

Poets are numerous now-a-days, and so
It’s not surprising we should cut a caper
In noble verse; it don’t cost much you know,
For pens and ink are cheap and so is paper,
And even if we do hunt Webster thro’
What matters it if we can make it do? . . .

Ypsilanti has thriven, and is now a city,
Numbering about six thousand population—
(There should be ten, but is not more’s the pity—
A census always is an aggravation,
Which, instead of giving cities a fair showing,
Seems made on purpose to retard their growing!)

Many small local factories and mills of the day ran on hydropower. Wendell’s poem took note of that, and mentioned in passing the onetime strategy of dust control for the town’s many dirt roads. In later years, Ypsilanti’s dirt roads were treated with oil, in an effort to tamp down the ever-present dust.

Its greatest feature is its water power,
Which is magnificent and very fine.
And one that is as good and rich a dower
As nature could bequeath; it proves a mine
Of untold wealth, a bank that cannot “bust,”
And one effectual for laying dust!

The poet took note that local businesses were full of entrepreneurial vim.

Its merchants are most enterprising men,
And don’t believe in sticking in the mud;
Their maxin’s go ahead, excepting when
Being stationary does them the most good!
Taking them all in all they know their “biz,”
And never call things pop unless they fizz.

Such merchants in 1883 included the Huron Street Hardware store. Their November 10, 1883 ad touted the “Iron Acorn” stove, the “Union Churn,” and the “Bench Wringer” for wringing out freshly-washed clothes: “It makes the Wash Women Smile.”

According to another 1883 ad, the Ypsilanti Bazaar on North Huron offered tin and glassware, photo albums, lamps, ladies’ and gents’ underwear, hoopskirts, corsets, and stationery.

Down at the Depot, George Neat’s variety store sold sugar, tea, coffee, and canned goods that included vegetables, lobster, whitefish, trout, and mackerel.

Cleary’s school of penmanship downtown on Michigan Avenue offered “Superior Advantages to Gentlemen and Ladies who are desirous of acquiring a rapid, graceful style of writing, either for business advantages or for successfully teaching Spencerian and Ornamental Penmanship.”

On the present-day Water Street site, the onetime Parsons Brothers lumberyard advertised lumber, flooring, moldings, fencing, and “Scroll Sawing neatly done with our new Deflecting Scroll Saw.”

An 1883 ad for the Opera House invited patrons to see a spiritualist.

An 1883 ad for the Opera House invited patrons to see a spiritualist.

And the Opera House on Michigan Avenue advertised an evening with a spiritualist. “An evening in the Spirit World,” said the November 17 ad. “Prof. Chas. N. Stein will give a Religious Illustrated Lecture, assisted by the Empress of Mediums, Mrs. Martha E. Steen, Presenting the whole of Modern Spiritualism in open light. Is it true or false? Come and see.” Admission was 25 and 35 cents [$5.70 and $8 today].

Getting around to these and other places, however, wasn’t always easy for a directory-man trying to catalogue the city. Some of the outlying streets weren’t labeled with street signs, a condition that must have been frustrating to anyone attempting to collect addresses.

For instance, there are streets within the city
Unnamed, or if they are the name’s unknown,
Especially in the suburbs food for pity
In this particular. We all must own
There’s much occasion for a man to swear,
When hunting for a street which isn’t there!

Equally vexing to the directory-man was the somewhat haphazard house numbering system. Some years later downtown residence and business numbers were overhauled and renumbered in a more systematic fashion. In 1883, however, a random element made things difficult.

Again the numbers on the houses are
A little mixed, and no one can be sure
But what is “sixty” is a “forty-four,”
In fact it may be less, or may be more;
It isn’t nice to hunt for “nine” you see
And have ’em say, “why, this is fifty-three!”

Of course not, consequently we suggest
A revision of the system, all throughout it,
The cost is trifling, and it’s the best
To have a thing correct, when one’s about it,
And then, how nice, to feel securely sure,
That number forty-eight ain’t twenty-four.

As the directory man tramped through town, perplexed by absent street signs and mixed-up house numbers, his quest wasn’t made easier by the somewhat rough sidewalks.

There also are some sidewalks here and there
That somehow like to have you “take a seat,”
The trouble is, it looks so awful queer,
That no one cares to do it in the street;
Its not “in style,” and people have a passion
For doing nothing but what’s “in the fashion.”

And so we think (we’re very fond of talking)
Another kind of walk would better please,
One that confines its usefulness for walking,
And not for sitting down, as some of these!
Still, we can truly say there’s very few Bad sidewalks in the city, but one or two.

After the information had been laboriously collected and returned to Coldwater for printing and binding, the directory man in his poem bade farewell to Ypsilanti.

Just so. And now our book being ended,
There’s nothing left to do but bid good-bye,
With thanks to those who have our work befriended,
We take our leave with a regretful sigh,
And in the words of foreign lore—Au Revoir,
Because we hope again to meet your eye.

Have an old-time story to share? Contact Laura at ypsidixit@gmail.com.

Ypsilanti’s Glaswegian Cobbler-Inventor

December 15, 2010 by  
Filed under Columnists

Archibald's signature on his 1874 patent application for "Mcnicol Cement."

Archibald's signature on his 1874 patent application for "McNicol Cement."

The Scottish-born immigrant contribution to 19th-century Ypsilanti life is undersung. Farmer-poet William Lambie published numerous poems in the Ypsilanti Commercial and shared a correspondence with Quaker poet John Greenleaf Whittier. Helen McAndrew was a doctor maintaining her own hospital in an era when few women worked outside the home. Archibald McNicol did not allow his humble occupation of cobbler to prevent him from becoming an inventor.

Born in Glasgow on February 8, 1839, Archibald apprenticed as a shoemaker. He emigrated at age 27 just after the American Civil War. After stints in Canada, Detroit, and Romeo, Michigan, he settled in Ypsilanti. He married Michigan-born Helen Treat in 1872 at age 33.

As a cobbler, Archibald spent his days cutting shapes from leather, stitching scraps together, and nailing on soles. However he had a creative and problem-solving mind. Two years after his marriage he filed a patent for an invention connected with his trade. He named his creation after himself.

“McNicol Cement” was compounded of India-rubber, gutta-percha, balata, and chloroform. The concoction was a glue for leather and a waterproofing agent.

The antique terms deserve explanation. “India rubber” is probably most familiar to old-timers as gum elastic, derived from a tropical tree and at one time common in pencil erasers. Gutta-percha and balata were other forms of rubber also derived from trees. The chloroform Archibald mixed into his concoction was likely purchased from a downtown drugstore.

“To cement pieces of leather together,” read Archibald’s patent description, “skive [pare down] each piece of leather to a wedge-like edge, apply the McNicol cement to both pieces, and after lapping them together pound slightly with a hammer or mallet to bring the pieces into close contact, and give ten minutes to thoroughly dry.” Skiving the edges of the leather before gluing them together increased the surface area and made for a smooth joint without a ridge.

McNicol Cement seems to have had some success. In his 1881 book “History of Washtenaw County,” Charles Chapman included mention of the cobbler-inventor. “In 1867 he came to Ypsilanti,” said Chapman, “and soon after invented the well-known McNicol cement, and traveled and sold the county and state rights for over 11 years.” However, Archibald did not abandon his occupation of shoemaker.

By 1880, Archibald and his one-month-older wife Helen were 41. They lived on Summit Street with their 7 year old daughter Jeanie and their 3 year old son. Helen’s 79 year old mother Sarah shared their home, as did a 28 year old apprentice shoemaker, Wentworth.

Archibald wasn’t through with inventing. In 1886, when he was 47, he filed a patent for a “door check,” a spring-loaded device that slowed the closure of the door upon which it was mounted, preventing it from slamming.

At the turn of the century, Archibald was 61. He continued to work as a shoemaker and along with his son, who worked as a grocer, supported an entire household that included Archibald’s wife Helen, his 23 year old son and his son’s wife Maud, Archibald’s 17 year old daughter Helen, and Maud’s 6 month old infant, also named Helen. Archibald owned the home, at 717 Congress Street.

He shared a shop downtown at 128 East Michigan Avenue with the candymakers Schiappacasse and Bullo and with insurance agent Edmund Hewitt. The shared shop’s neighbors included the F. C. Banghart meat market and the Senate Saloon.

In his 60s, Archibald was still not finished with inventing. In 1902, he filed for a patent for his improved hook and eye fastener, an intricate wire contraption that appears to have been intended for use on clothing, not shoes. Soon afterwards, Archibald turned 70. The art of shoemaking that he’d learned as a boy in Glasgow had enabled him to make a living, maintain a downtown shop, and successfully support a family in America for many decades.

Archibald’s wife Helen passed away and was buried in Highland Cemetery. Shortly after his 71st birthday, Archibald fell ill. He was taken to Ann Arbor’s Homeopathic Hospital and there died.

On Archibald’s death certificate, the coroner wrote as cause of death “autointoxication.” The period term did not refer to alcohol but to a theory of the day that self-poisoning resulted from incorrect nutrition or malfunction of the digestive system. Archibald’s daughter Jean signed the death certificate.

Archibald was buried with Helen in block 54 of Highland Cemetery.

Have an old-time story to share? Drop Laura  a line at ypsidixit@gmail.com.

Obit: Shirley E. (Moser) Barnes

December 7, 2010 by  
Filed under News, Obituaries

dsc05985Shirley E. (Moser) Barnes
born:  August 1, 1929, Bassano, Alberta, Canada
died:  November 26, 2010, Sun City, Arizona
graduated:  Harbor Springs High School, Harbor Springs, MI 1947,
Cleary College, Ypsilanti, MI, 1948
married:  Gilbert T. Barnes, June 25, 1950, Harbor Springs Methodist Church
preceded in death by her husband, June 5, 1996
retired from:  High Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti, MI, 1989
member of:  United Methodist Church in both Harbor Springs and Ypsilanti for many years
survived by:
her children, Janice K. Huff, Diane M.B. DeBoer, Steven G. Barnes, Cheryl E. Maslowski
grandchildren, Kristie L. Cupitt, Lisa G. Barnes
great-grandchildren, Calvin, Curtis, Caitlyn Cupitt
her sister, Betty M. Nardo
nieces, Mary Sue Farris, Annette M. Stravino
memorial donations:  American Heart Association
burial: family graveside services, Lakeview Cemetery, Harbor Springs, MI